|The largest share of initiatives in this policy area addresses international policy governance. This includes a wide range of initiatives such as strategies promoting the internationalisation of research and innovation activities and bilateral research and innovation cooperation agreements.|
|Most policies tackle the national government, as a large share of initiatives establish national strategies or plans to provide orientation or coordination to government action. Such policies also tend to involve public research organisations.|
|Strategies cover a wide range of national issues, often overlapping into other policy areas such as public research system and innovation in firms and innovative entrepreneurship. Common topics in strategies include research infrastructures, smart specialisation and social challenges.|
Figure 1 shows the number of policy initiatives reported within themes belonging to the Governance policy area. The largest number of policies address International STI governance. This set includes a wide range of initiatives varying in scope, including strategies promoting the internationalisation of research and innovation activities, bilateral research and innovation cooperation agreements, participation in multilateral initiatives, and joint infrastructures or research centres. The second most recurrent theme is National STI plan or strategy, also capturing a variety of country agendas that set the national priorities for STI activities. The third most frequent theme is Strategic policy intelligence, grouping high-level expert groups or advisory councils, regulations related to evidence-based policy making, scoreboards, technology assessments and foresight exercises, among others. This theme is followed by Horizontal policy coordination (e.g. inter-ministerial councils and priority-setting mechanisms) and, lastly, Evaluation and impact assessment that captures key regulations, bodies and initiatives in charge of setting the country's overarching evaluation practices and mechanisms.
Figure 2 indicates the frequency in which Governance policy initiatives address target groups (actors in the STI system). As it is to be expected, most policies are addressed to the National government. As shown further below, very often these initiatives establish national strategies or plans, which seek to provide orientation or coordination to government action. The next more frequently raised target groups are Public research institutes and Higher education institutes, also frequently addressed by overarching national strategies. Established researchers are relatively less often directly targeted compared to public research organisations. Firms are the most frequently targeted private actor in the STI system. Companies are addressed to similar extents regardless of their age or size, though SMEs are at times emphasised in policies. After this target group we find another set of research actors, i.e. Postdocs and other early-career researchers, Private research and development lab and PhD students. After public and private actors we find that a number of policies seek to involve Civil society as a whole, as is the case with Subnational government bodies (regional governance). Other target groups addressed by more than 100 initiatives include Entrepreneurs and knowledge intermediaries such as Incubators, accelerators, science parks or technoparks.